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DICTIONARY OF MUSIC


DICTIONARY OF MUSIC
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F

f forte, loud

F clef a clef sign that shows the position of F on the staff

Falsetas the melody played on a flamenco guitar

Fan Bracing Generally made of spruce, braces add stiffness to the top of a classical guitar. The wood chosen is very straight grained running the length of the brace. The fan describes the pattern in which the braces lay.

Fantasia (Italian) a piece with an improvisatory feel to it
Fantasie (Italian) a piece with an improvisatory feel to it
Fantasy a piece with an improvisatory feel to it

Farruca a Spanish gypsy dance for men, in 2/4 time

F clef a clef sign that shows the position of F on the staff

Fermata (Italian) musical symbol placed over a note or rest to be extended beyond its normal duration
Fermate (German) musical symbol placed over a note or rest to be extended beyond its normal duration

Fest (German) festival

Festa (Italian) festive

ff (Italian) abbreviation for fortissimo
fff (Italian) abbreviation for fortississimo
ffff (Italian) abbreviation for fortissississimo
fffff  (Italian) abbreviation for fortississississimo

Fifth an interval of five diatonic degrees

Figure musical phrase that repeats in a musical composition

Figured melody melody that is highly ornamented

Fin (French) end

Fin (Italian) as far as

Final central pitch of a piece of music, often the note on which a musical work ends

Final Cadence A chord progression where the dominant chord is followed by the tonic chord- In the tonality of C major, an authentic cadence would be the dominant G major chord (G B D) moving to the tonic C major chord (C E G). In a perfect authentic cadence, the dominant chord in root position is followed by the tonic in root position, and according to some, the cadence is not perfect unless the uppermost voice is the tonic in the final chord

Finale (Italian) the final section of an extended work with several movements or sections

Fine (Italian) end

Fingerboard A strip of wood holding frets on the neck of a guitar against which the strings are pressed in playing.

Fingering the arrangement of fingers required to play a particular note or sequences of notes on a musical instrument

First ending where a section is repeated, the composer may wish to vary the sectional ending, whether first ending or second ending, as a way of creating symmetry between antecedent and consequent phrases or simply in order to extend the composition

Flag line(s) extending from the right side of a stem of a note. Indicating an eighth note or smaller

Flamenco A style evolved over centuries, carried across Asia, the Middle East, Africa and the European continent by nomad gypsies. At its purest it is a form of song accompanied with one or two guitars and rhythmic clapping.

Flat a sign which lowers the pitch of a note by one semitone

Flat to play under the general pitch

Focoso (Italian) fiery

Folia a folk-song associated with the Canary Islands, slow and lyrical in character and usually accompanied by a guitar or the timple

Folk elements introduction of folk melodies, rhythms or characteristic harmonic progressions into orchestral or chamber music

Folk music songs and dances transmitted orally through several generations before being recorded or notated

Forte (Italian) loud, abbreviated 'f',  powerful, strong

Fortemente (Italian) strongly powerfully,
Fortepiano (Italian) early name for the pianoforte
Fortissimo (Italian) louder than forte
Fortississimo (Italian) louder than Fortissimo
Fortissississimo (Italian) louder than Fortississimo Forza (Italian) force
Forzando (Italian) forcing
Forzato (Italian) forced
fp Fortepiano; loud, then immediately soft

French Polished Shellac French polishing is a method of applying finish to a guitar by hand with a cotton pad. Most of the fine classical guitars being hand made today are French Polished. It is a most highly-prized and desired finish for both its visual and tone enhancing characteristics.  The texture, luster and color of the wood are enhanced with a French polish finish. It is thin, flexible and produces the clearest and most natural sound. Multiple polishing sessions are required over many weeks to achieve the best results.  The finish dries to the touch almost immediately but can takes months to fully cure.  Even though it is thin and flexible it is not very protective against even minor physical abuse.

Frequency the number of vibrations per second of a musical pitch, usually measured in Hertz (Hz)

Fresco (Italian) fresh or cool

Frets Horizontal strips fixed in or tied around the fingerboard of some stringed instruments to act as guides to where the fingers should be placed to stop for different notes. Strips of metal on the neck of a guitar against which the strings are pressed in playing.

Fuga (Latin)
Fugato a passage in a fugal style
Fugue (Italian) a fifteenth- or sixteenth-century canon
Fuge (German) fugue
Fughetta a short fugue

Fugue form in which a subject theme is introduced and then extended and developed through some number of successive imitations

Full Cadence A chord progression where the dominant chord is followed by the tonic chord- In the tonality of C major, an authentic cadence would be the dominant G major chord (G B D) moving to the tonic C major chord (C E G). In a perfect authentic cadence, the dominant chord in root position is followed by the tonic in root position, and according to some, the cadence is not perfect unless the uppermost voice is the tonic in the final chord. 

Full Close Cadence A chord progression where the dominant chord is followed by the tonic chord- In the tonality of C major, an authentic cadence would be the dominant G major chord (G B D) moving to the tonic C major chord (C E G). In a perfect authentic cadence, the dominant chord in root position is followed by the tonic in root position, and according to some, the cadence is not perfect unless the uppermost voice is the tonic in the final chord. 

Full Orchestra an orchestra with all of its four sections; brass, percussion strings, and woodwind

Fundamental the lowest note in the harmonic series

Fuoco (Italian) force and speed

Für  (German) for

fz (Italian)  forzando or forzato; forcing


G

G clef a clef sign that shows the position of G on the staff

G String The third string of the guitar.

Gaillard a simple triple time dance usually popular in the 16th and 17th centuries

Galliard (English) lively dance originating from the fifteenth-century, generally in triple time
Galliarde (French) lively dance originating from the fifteenth-century, generally in triple time

Galop a lively nineteenth-century round dance in simple duple time
Galopade a lively nineteenth-century round dance in simple duple time

Gauche (French) left

G clef a clef sign that shows the position of G on the staff

Gentilemente (Italian) delicately, gently

Giacoso (Italian) lighthearted manner, play in a merry

Gig jig, a quick dance with the beats grouped in 3's
Giga jig, a quick dance with the beats grouped in 3's
Gigg jig, a quick dance with the beats grouped in 3's
Gigge jig, a quick dance with the beats grouped in 3's

Gitana (Italian) gipsy
Gitano (Italian) gipsy

Gittern an early form of guitar with four pairs of gut strings

Glissando (Italian) A rapid scale produced by sliding the finger from one note to another
Glissant (French) A rapid scale produced by sliding the finger from one note to another
Glisser (French) A rapid scale produced by sliding the finger from one note to another
Gitarr (Swedish) guitar

Grace note ornamental note played quickly before the beat

Graciozo (Italian) play gracefully

Granadillo A wood common in South America. It is non-porous, straight grained and very dense. It has a medium to fine texture. The reddish brown color darkens to a brick color over time much like Honduran rosewood.

Granadina a type of fandango from southern Spain

Grand staff the combination of a staff line notated in treble clef with one notated in bass clef

Grazia (Italian) grace
Grazioso (Italian) graceful
Graziosamente (Italian) gracefully
Graziös (German) gracious, graceful

Great staff A combination of the bass clef and treble clef staves with the common line between them

Gros (French) great, big
Grosse (French) great, big
Gross (German) great, large
Grosse (German) great, large
Grosso (Italian) full, great

G-Schlussel (German) G or treble clef

Guitar Polish Product designed specifically for shining a guitar.

Guitar Top Resonator consisting of a thin board whose vibrations reinforce the sound of the instrument. The Soundboard.

Guitarra de golpe a Mexican 3/4 sized guitar used as a rhythmic instrument in mariachi music

Guitarra de son a small 4-string Mexican guitar from the Jarocho region

Guitarra mariachera a Mexican 3/4 sized guitar used as a rhythmic instrument in mariachi music

Guitarrico very small Spanish guitar related to the timple

Guitarrillo a small guitar with 12 metal strings used in Spanish-speaking countries

Guitarro a small Spanish five string guitar

Guitarrón a large bass guitar from Chile and Mexico. with a short neck, six strings, no frets on the fingerboard and a belly in the back

Gut (German) the intestines of animals used for strings of musical instruments

Gut (German) good, well

Gypsy scale resembling the harmonic minor scale, but with an augmented fourth (C, D, E flat, F sharp, G, A flat, B, C').

Gyterne a short-necked lute


H

Half Cadence A chord progression where the dominant chord is the final chord of the cadence and is preceded by the tonic chord in second inversion. This pattern produces two chords with the same bass note. In the tonality of C major, a half cadence would be the tonic chord in second inversion C major chord (G C E) moving to the dominant G major chord (G B D).
Half Close Cadence A chord progression where the dominant chord is the final chord of the cadence and is preceded by the tonic chord in second inversion. This pattern produces two chords with the same bass note. In the tonality of C major, a half cadence would be the tonic chord in second inversion C major chord (G C E) moving to the dominant G major chord (G B D).

Half note a note half the value of a semibreve
Half rest a rest half the value of a semibreve

Half step a semitone

Hallelujah (Hebrew) a song in praise of God

Harmonic Minor Scale

Harmonic progression the movement from one chord to another

Harmonic rhythm the rate of harmonic change

Harmonic series elements of the aural spectrum
Harmonics elements of the aural spectrum

Harmonique (French) harmonic
Harmonische Töne (German) harmonics

Harmony the relationship between notes when heard together

Hawaiian guitar a slide guitar

Hejjuj Arabic word for lute

Hidden fifths Approaching fifths or octaves by similar motion can produce the same effect as approaching fifths or octaves by parallel motion. Adding a passing tone to a hidden fifth produces a parallel fifth, for example. Since the parallel fifth is implied by a missing note, approaching fifths or octaves by similar motion is called hidden fifths or octaves
Hidden octaves Approaching fifths or octaves by similar motion can produce the same effect as approaching fifths or octaves by parallel motion. Adding a passing tone to a hidden fifth produces a parallel fifth, for example. Since the parallel fifth is implied by a missing note, approaching fifths or octaves by similar motion is called hidden fifths or octaves

Hondo sad Andalusian song employing microtones

Honduran Mahogany A wood that used to be exported mainly from Honduras, but now comes more often from Brazil. African Mahogany is a little heavier and finer textured than Honduran Mahogany. Mahogany is fine for guitars due to its relative low cost, ease of working, and stability. Colors range from light pink to medium brown to reddish brown.

Honduran Rosewood A wood becoming difficult to obtain. Denser than Indian rosewood, it compares well to Brazilian rosewood, and some claim it is superior, producing a well-balanced sounding guitar with great projection and strong lows and highs. A good substitute to Brazilian Rosewood. The color ranges from a rich mauve to a brownish brick red with tight growth rings and occasional dark brown to black ink lines.

Honduran Redheart An alternative wood for the back and sides of a classical guitar.

Hornpipe a lively dance resembling a jig in triple time in the early sixteenth century, and in 4/4 time from the mid-eighteenth century, associated with sailors

Humoreske (German) piano music of a capricious character
Humoresque (French) piano music of a capricious character

Hymn a song of praise


I

Index finger of the right hand

I (Italian) the

I, II, III, IV, V, VI…… A single finger holding multiple strings on a stringed instrument  at the same time.Symbol used in standard notation for guitar. Roman numeral indicates which fret. Example: B7 (C7, CVII, VII)

Il (Italian) the

Il faut (French) there is needed, there are needed

Illustrative music music that evokes a idea, mood or experience

Il pin (Italian) the most

Imitando (Italian) imitating

Imitation the repetition of a phrase, usually at a different pitch
Imitative the repetition of a phrase, usually at a different pitch

Imperfect Cadence Half Cadence. A chord progression where the dominant chord is the final chord of the cadence and is preceded by the tonic chord in second inversion. This pattern produces two chords with the same bass note. In the tonality of C major, a half cadence would be the tonic chord in second inversion C major chord (G C E) moving to the dominant G major chord (G B D).

Impressionism gives an impression of an experience

Impromptu instrumental piece giving the impression of having been improvised

Improvisation compose or perform

Inconsolato (Italian) in a mournful style

Indebolendo (Italian) becoming weaker

Indeciso (Italian) capricious, undecided

Instrumental describes music written for instruments but not for the voice

Instrumentation the disposition of instruments in a musical work, which instruments plays what lines in the score

Instruments devices used to create music

Interlude a short piece played between two larger ones

Intermezzo (Italian) a smaller piece placed between others

Interrupted Cadence Deceptive Cadence. A chord progression where the dominant chord is followed by a chord other than the tonic chord- In the tonality of C major, a deceptive cadence could be the dominant G major chord (G B D) moving to the subdominant A minor chord (A C E).

Interval the distance between two pitches

Intrada (Italian) entrée

Intro opening bars of a piece of music played before the main theme

Introduction the opening part of a piece of music

Introduzione (Italian) introduction

Inversion where the notes in a chord or triad do not follow their standard order

Invertible counterpoint counterpoint in which two or more voices can be interchanged


J

Jácara (Spanish) old song-dance

Jam session informal performance

Jazz music that originated in New Orleans, characterised by syncopations and reiterated rhythms

Jondo a more serious flamenco style

Jondura a more serious flamenco style

Joropo national music and dance form of Venezuela. The dancers are accompanied by harp, cuatro, maracas and guitar

Jota quick dance with hopping steps in triple time from Spain performed by a couple accompanied by a singer who plays the guitar

Joyeuse (French) joyous
Joyeux (French) joyous


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